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SEB葡萄球菌肠毒素代理

Toxin Technology

Toxin Technology成立于1984年,其目的是向工业和科学界提供优质的葡萄球菌毒素和抗毒素。此外,该公司的服务部分被建立以测试食品和培养上清液中葡萄球菌毒素的存在。该公司的创始人,医生R.F. Reiser和R.H. Deibel在公司成立时是各自葡萄球菌研究领域的专家。 Reiser博士在葡萄球菌肠毒素的纯化和表征方面拥有丰富的经验,并且是毒性休克综合征毒素特征描述的先驱。 Deibel博士是威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校细菌学系主任,他对食品中葡萄球菌和沙门氏菌的生长及其毒素在动物模型中的作用进行了广泛的研究。副总裁兼实验室经理Paul Bina先生于1985年加入Tox Tech;工作人员已发展到八名员工,其中包括四名板凳科学家
 
该公司的产品线已经扩展到包括由链球菌和大肠杆菌产生的毒素。兔子和绵羊制备的多克隆抗体可用于大多数毒素,小鼠单克隆抗体随时可用。该公司的服务部门现在包括测试其他细菌毒素和霉菌毒素,以及检测葡萄球菌和链球菌毒素抗体的血清学。合同研究服务可用于毒素生产和毒素 - 产品挑战研究领域。这些研究可以在良好实验室规范标准(GLPS)下进行。
目的
 
Toxin Technology及其员工的目的是为科学界提供最高质量的毒素和相关产品。在服务方面,我们的政策是为细菌毒素和真菌毒素提供最快速,灵敏和有效的检测方法。
Toxin Technology代理,Toxin Technology上海代理,Toxin Technology中国代理,ET404代理,BT202代理


Highly  Purified  Staphylococcal  Enterotoxins
Name Catalog # Sizes Name Catalog # Sizes
SEA AT101 100 µg SEE ET404 100 µg
SEB BT202 1 mg SEH SEH-1 1 mg
SEC1 CT111 5 mg SEJ SEJ-1 5 mg
SEC2 CT222 10 mg SEK SEK-1 10 mg
SEC3 CT333   TSST-1 TT606  
SED DT303   ExfoliativeToxin A ST101  
Endotoxin Minimized Enterotoxins Available Upon Request (< 1 EU/mg) Inquire
Recombinant Staphylococcal Enterotoxins (rSEs)
rSEA rAT101   rSED rDT303  
rSEB rBT202   rSEE rET404  
rSEC-3 rCT333   rTSST-1 rTT606  
 
1Toxin grades are partially purified or highly purified.  None are pure and all contain other
  substances that co-purify and can be detected using improved or very sensitive methods.
2 These reagents are intended for laboratory and research purposes only. They are not
   intended for human or veterinary drug use.
3  Minimum U.S. order $50.00, Min. International $250.00. Terms are net 30 days; U.S. dollars only.
4 The U.S. DOC requires Export Licenses for ALL Staph & Shiga Toxins.
Toxin Technology Assumes No Liability for the Use of these Products.

Highly  Purified  Staphylococcal  Enterotoxins
Endotoxin Reduced < 5 EU per mg.
Name Catalog #        
SEA AT101red   SEE ET404red  
SEB BT202red   SEH SEH-1red  
SEC1 CT111red   SEJ SEJ-1red  
SEC2 CT222red   SEK SEK-1red  
SEC3 CT333red   TSST-1 TT606red  
SED DT303red   Exfoliative
Toxin A
ST101red  
Further Endotoxin Reduction Available Upon Request (< 1 EU/mg) Inquire
Recombinant Staphylococcal Enterotoxins (rSEs)
rSEA rAT101red   rSED rDT303red  
rSEB rBT202red   rSEE rET404red  
rSEC-3 rCT333red   rTSST-1 rTT606red  
Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Toxoids (SE-X)
SEA-X AT101-X   SEB-X BT202-X  
Other Toxoids Can Be Prepared Upon Request
 
Partially Purified Staphylococcal Enterotoxins
Name Catalog #   Name Catalog #  
SEA AP101   SED DP303  
SEB BP202   SEE EP404  
SEC’s CP1, 2, 3   TSST-1 TP606  
Other Partially Purified Toxins can be Prepared on Request.
Biotinylated  Staphylococcal  Enterotoxins  
Name Catalog # Name Catalog #
SEA AT101-B SEE ET404-B
SEB BT202-B TSST-1 TT606-B
SEC’s CT1, 2, 3-B ExfoliativeToxin  A ST101-B
SED DT303-B    
Other Products Can be Biotinylated on Request
Staphylococcal  Thermonuclease
Quantity Catalog  #’s 250 µ-molar units SN250
5000 µ-molar  units SN5000 500 µ-molar units SN500
Staphylococcal  Hemolysins
Description Catalog  # Description
Alpha Hemolysin - partially purified HP101 BHP1 Beta Hemolysin - partially purified
Alpha Hemolysin - highly purified HT101 BHT1 Beta Hemolysin - highly purified
Staphylococcal Peptidoglycan
Description Catalog  #  
Staphylococcal peptidoglycan STPG1  
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012

Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net

 
ANTISERA
RABBIT
 

Staphylococcal  Antitoxins                     
Name Catalog # Name Catalog #
Anti - SEA AS101 Anti - SED DS303
Anti - SEB BS202 Anti - SEE ES404
Anti - SEC1 CS111 Anti - SEH SEHS - 1
Anti - SEC2 CS222 Anti - TSST-1 TS606
Anti - SEC3 CS333 Anti - DNase NS101
Affinity Purified                IgG            IgG  HRPO  Conj.   IgG Biotinylated  
Name Catalog # IgG   Catalog # HRPO   Catalog # Biotinylated    
Anti - SEA LAI101   LAC101   BAC101    
Anti - SEB LBI202   LBC202   BBC202    
Anti - SEC LCI111   LCC111   BCC111    
Anti - SED LDI303   LDC303   BDC303    
Anti - SEE LEI404   LEC404   BEC404    
Anti - SEH LSEHI-1   LSEHC-1   BHC-1    
Anti - TSST-1 LTI101   LTC101   BTC101    
Anti - DNase LNI101   LNC101   BNC101    
 
Normal Rabbit Serum Tested to be Free of Antibodies to SEA-E & TSST-1
Cat. # NRS-5 5 mL   Cat. # NRS-10 10 mL

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012

Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net

 
ANTISERA
SHEEP
 

Staphylococcal  Antitoxins                       
Name Catalog # Name Catalog #  
Anti - SEA SAS101 Anti - SEE SES404  
Anti - SEB SBS202 Anti - TSST-1 STS606  
Anti - SEC1 SCS111 Anti - Exfoliative toxin  A SSS101  
Anti - SEC2 SCS222 Anti - Alpha-hemolysin SHS101  
Anti - SEC3 SCS333 Anti - DNase SNS101  
Anti - SED SDS303      
  Affinity Purified IgG   IgG  HRPO Conj.    IgG Biotinylated  
  Name Cat. #   Cat. #   Cat. #    
  Anti - SEA SLAI101   SLAC101   SBAC101    
  Anti - SEB SLBI202   SLBC202   SBBC202    
  Anti - SEC SLCI111   SLCC111   SBCC111    
  Anti - SED SLDI303   SLDC303   SBDC303    
  Anti - SEE SLEI404   SLEC404   SBEC404    
  Anti - TSST-1 SLTI101   SLTC101   SBTC101    
  Anti - ET-A SLSI505   SLSC505   SBSC505    
  Anti - DNase SLNI101   SLNC101   SBNC101    
  Anti- α-Hemolysin SLHI101   SLHC101   SBHC    
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012
Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net
 
Murine Monoclonal Antibodies to the Staph Toxins
 
MA108             Anti-SEA, γ2b, Xreacts with SEE. Overlaps Zn++ MHC binding site,
                          requires Zn++ for binding. (Kappler & Marrack)                 1mg
 
MBI202             Prepared against Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B                   1mg   
                          IgG; Reactivity: Anti-SEB & SEC.
 
MB344             Anti-SEB, γ1, 6.0 nM, Not overlapping with the SEB MHC or TCR
                          interaction site (Kappler & Marrack)                                    1mg   
 
MB327   Anti-SEB, γ2b, 95 nM, Not overlapping with the SEB MHC or TCR
                          interaction site (Kappler & Marrack)                                    1mg   
 
MB2B33           Anti-SEB, γ1, 5.2 nM, Overlaps with the SEB MHC interaction site.
                          (Kappler & Marrack)                                                             1mg   
 
MB87      Anti-SEB, γ1, 9.3 nM, Overlaps with the SEB TCR interaction site.
                          (Kappler & Marrack)                                                             1mg   
 
MC165             Anti-SEC, γ1, Reacts with SEC1 (1.5nM) > SEC3 (20nM) > SEC2 (75nM)
                          (Kappler & Marrack)                                                             1mg   
 
MCTS-1            Prepared against Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1                1mg   
                          (Formerly Cat. # TS-2) IgG; Reactivity: Anti-TSST-1.
 
 
 
    
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012
Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net
 
Streptococcal Reagents
 

Streptococcal  pyrogenic  exotoxins  
( SPE ), Native
SPE, Recombinant (rSPE)
Name Catalog  # rSPE-A (Allele-1) rPTA111
SPE-B PTB222 rSPE-C rPTC333
 
 

Streptococcal  antitoxins    
Name Catalog  #   Source  
             Anti-SPE-A PSA111   sheep  
Anti-SPE-A RPSA1   rabbit  
Anti-SPE-B PSB222   rabbit  
Anti-SPE-C PSC333                                         rabbit  
Affinity Purified IgG Rabbit  IgG  HRPO  Conjugate  
Name Catalog #   Catalog #    
 
Anti - SPE-A
 
 
PAI111
   
PAC111
   
 
Anti - SPE-B
 
PBI222
   
PBC222
   
 
Anti - SPE-C
 
PCI333
   
PCC333
   
 
 

Streptococcal Peptidoglycan
Description Catalog  # Quantity
Streptococcal peptidoglycan SRPG1 10 mg
 
 
 
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012
Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net
 
Shigatoxin (Verotoxin) Reagents
 
Monoclonal Antibodies (Murine)
 
STX1-9C9     1mg     
 
                       Reference: Padhye, V.V. et al. 1989. J. Med. Microbiol. 30:219-226.
                       Reported Specificity: VT-1; A,A1,B, Neutralizing; VT-2; A,A1,
                                                          Non-neutralizing. Isotype, IgG1
 
STX1-3C10    1mg     
 
                        Reference: Same as above.
                        Reported Specificity: Same as above. Isotype, IgG1
 
STX1-10D11   1mg    
 
                        Reference: Same as above.
                        Reported Specificity: VT-1; A,A1,B, Neutralizing; VT-2; A,A1,B,
                                                           Non-neutralizing. Isotype, IgG2b
 
STX2-BB12   1mg    
 
                       Reference: Pouch Downes, F. et al. 1988. Infection & Immunity. 56:1926-
                                          1933.
                       Reported Specificity: VT-2; B, Neutralizing. The clone was received as
                                                          BB-12; some researchers report that it does not react
                                                          the same as the original “BB12” MAb. Isotype, IgG1
 
STX1-13C4   1mg      
 
                      Reference: Strockbine N.A. et al 1985. Infection & Immunity. 50:695-700.
                      Reported Specificity: VT-1; B, Neutralizing.
                      Note: This MAb can be purchased and used for research purposes only, it is
                                 Not to be used for any commercial purposes and is limited by the
                                 Licensee to a maximum of 5mg per purchase. Isotype, IgG1 κ
 
STX2-11E10  1mg     
 
                        Reference: Perera, L.F. et al. 1988. J. Clin. Microbiol. 26:2127-2131.
                        Reported Specificity: VT-2, Neutralizing(+/-)
                        Note: The same use conditions as STX1-13C4 apply to this MAb
                             Isotype, IgG1 κ
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012

Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net

 
 
Shigatoxin Reagents, Continued
 
Pooled Monoclonal Antibodies
 
STXPI-1        1mg      Pool of MAb 9C9, 3C10, 10D11 & BB12
  
STXPC-1       0.5mL  Pooled MAb IgG-HRPO Conjugate            
 
BSTXPC-1    0.5mL Pooled MAb IgG-Biotin Conjugate            
 
Shigatoxins (STX, Verotoxins, VT)          
 
STX-1 (Formerly, SLT-1) Partially Purified Shigatoxin-1*     0.5 mg    
 
STX-2 (Formerly, SLT-2) Partially Purified Shigatoxin-2*     0.5 mg     
 
* At least 10 7 Verocytotoxic units/mg.
 
 
 
Ricin Reagents
 
RCAX-1            Ricin (RCA 60) Toxoid                                                       1 mg
LRCAI-1           Anti-Ricin, Polyclonal Rabbit IgG                                       1 mg  
 
LRCAC-1         Anti-Ricin IgG-HRPO                                                        0.5 mL
 
 
Abrin Reagents
 
ABR-1               Abrin Toxin (Mixed Isomers)                                              1 mg
 
ABRX-1            Abrin Toxoid                                                                        1 mg
 
AABR-1            Anti-Abrin (Inquire)
 
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012
Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net
 
 
 
 
Listeria Monocytogenes typing antibodies
 
General technical information
 
 
These antibody reagents have been developed in rabbits and are specific for
the somatic and flagellar antigens of Listeria monocytogenes.  They may be
used to identify and characterize different serotypes of L. monocytogenes.  
The reagents are sold in a lyophilized form and are under vacuum.  In this
            evacuated, freeze-dried form, the antibodies are stable for several years when
            stored at - 20 0C or lower.
 
To rehydrate the antibody reagents, it is recommended to add an equivalent
volume of deionized water (usually l ml) to the vial, then aliquot the content to
convenient working volumes and freeze any of the aliquots which will not be
used within several days.  The shelf life of the rehydrated reagent is
            approximately one week at 4 0C and one year at - 20  0C.
 
To prepare an aliquot of rehydrated reagent for use in the FDA-BAM serological
            typing procedure, dilute the reagent to the recommended dilution with PBS-
           Tween (0.01 M phosphate, 0.9 % NaCl, 0.05 % Tween-20, pH to 7.4) The diluted
working reagent should be used within 8 hours.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
               
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012
Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net
 
 
Listeria monocytogenes serotyping reagents:
 
                       Somatic Groups
 
Serotype (O - antigens)
 
   anti - O1a (1) cat. no. LMO1
 
   anti - O1a (1,2) cat. no. LMO12
 
   anti - O3a (4) cat. no. LMO3
 
   anti - O4a (7,9) cat. no. LMO4A
 
   anti - O4b (6) cat. no. LMO4B6
 
   anti - O4b (5,6) cat. no. LMO4B56
 
   anti - O4d (8) cat. no. LMO4D
 
 

 
                         Flagellar Groups
 
Flagellar antigen
 
   anti - HA cat. no. LMHA
 
   anti - HC cat. no. LMHC
 
   anti - HD cat. no. LMHD
 
Sold in Individual 1 mL Units or in Set of 1 mL each.
 
The Listeria monocytogenes serotyping reagents are absorbed,
hyper-immune rabbit serum products.  These products are used
in the FDA-BAM serotyping procedure
 
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012

Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net
 

TEST SERVICES - DESCRIPTION AND PRICES

            
Bacterial Toxins                                                            Mycotoxins
                                                            

 
      - Total aflatoxins, B’s and G’s                 
      - Aflatoxin M1                                           
- Zearalenone                                             
      - Vomitoxin                                                
      - T-2 toxin                                                  
      - Fumonisin                                                                           - Ochratoxin A                                                                      - Sterigmatocystin                                                                 - Patulin                                                      
 
                                 Serotyping
 
       - Salmonella                                              
       - Listeria                                                   
       - E. coli                                                       
 
 
  Staphylococcal Exoproteins
      -Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxins                
      - Serum sample (TSST-1 Titer)*               
      - Paired sera, acute and
         convalescent (TSST-1Titer)*               
      - isolate (toxin panel) A-E & TSST-1                                  - DNase (ELISA)                                                                   - Coagulase                                                 
      - Mitogenicity (TC)                             
      - Exfoliative Toxin A (ELISA)                  
      - IgE Titer (SEs/TSST-1)*                       
 -IgG Titer (SEA,B,Cs,D,E&TSST-1)*   
 
 
                       Toxicology
In vivo acute toxicology (mouse)                
  
In vitro cytotoxicity with various
       cell lines                                                 
 
*Serologies are for investigative purposes only, not for
   human diagnostic use.
   TOX TECH is NOT a CLIA LICENSED FACILITY.
 
Staphylococcal enterotoxins
      - FDA-BAM Screen (no typing)                
           - Confirmation (ELISA-typing)                              - Confirmation & Quantitation          
           - Confirmation (Microslide)              
      
                                                                                      Escherichia coli toxicology/pathology
       - verotoxins (shiga-like toxins)
             - ELISA (no typing)                                                
             - ELISA (typing)                                
             - Tissue culture (TC)                                         
             - Labile enterotoxin (RPLA)                                   - invasiveness / adherence (TC)     
      
Streptococcal Toxins
      - pyrotoxins A,B, and C (ELISA)             
 
Bacillus cereus toxins
      - diarrheal enterotoxin (ELISA)                    -          emetic enterotoxin (TC)
                           Inquire
 
Clostridial toxins
    - perfringens alpha toxin (enzyme)           
    - perfringens enterotoxin (RPLA)             
    - botulinal toxin screen (FDA)                   
    - botulinal toxin typing (FDA)                    
     
     Miscellaneous Toxins
Paralytic shellfish toxin, i.e.,                          
    Saxitoxin (mouse)                                       
    Saxitoxin (ELISA)                                      
                                
Endotoxin
     -Qualitative   (Limulus)                               
     -Quantitative (Limulus)                            
 
 
                                                                        
                      
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012
Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net
 
References
 
Staphylococcal Enterotoxins:
1. Bergdoll, M.S. and A.C.L. Wong Staphylococcal intoxications. In Foodborne Infections and Intoxications 3e. Chapter 14. (2006) Elsevier, Inc.
 
2. Bergdoll, M.S. Enterotoxins. In Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections, 2. (1983) Academic
               Press,  London. (SEA-E)
 
3. Freed, R.C., M.L. Evenson, R.F. Reiser & M.S. Bergdoll. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Staphylococcal Enterotoxins  in
       Foods. (1982)  Appl.  Environ. Microbiol. 44:1349-55.
        
4. Bergdoll, M.S. et al. A New Staphylococcal Enterotoxin, Enterotoxin F, Associated with Toxic-
        Shock-Syndrome Staphylococcus Aureus Isolates. (1981) Lancet. 1017-21.
         
         5. Munson, S.H. et al. Identification and Characterization of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin Types G and
             I from  Staphylococcus aureus. (1998) Infection and Immunity. 66:3337-48.
 
         6.  Su, Y.-C. and A.C.L. Wong. Identification and Purification of a New Staphylococcal Enterotoxin,
              H. (1995) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 61:1438-43.
        
7. Zhang, S. et al. The Enterotoxin D plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a second               
       enterotoxin determinant (SEJ). (1998) FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 168(2):227-33.
 
          8.  Owen, P.M. et al. Biochemical and Biological Properties of Staphylococcal Enterotoxin K. (2001)
       Infection & Immunity. 69:360-366.

  9.  SEL, Dr. Pat Schlievert’s Group (Unpublished)

 10. Jarraud, S. et al. egc, A Highly Preventive Operon of Enterotoxin Gene, Forms a Putative Nursery
       of  Superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus. 2001. J. Immunology. 166:669-677. An Erratum to
       this article was published in J. Immunology 166:4259. (SEM, N & O)

 11. Reiser, R.F. et al. Purification and Some Physicochemical Properties of Toxic-Shock-Toxin. (1983)
        Biochemistry. 22: 3907-12. (TSST-1)

12. Reiser, R.F. et al. Production of Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin-1 by Staphylococcus aureus  Restricted to Endogenous Air in Tampons. (1987)  J. Clin. Microbiol. 25:1450-52.

13. Schlievert, P.M. et al. Identification an Characterization of an Exotoxin from Staphylococcus aureus Associated with Toxic-Shock Syndrome. (1981) Infect. Dis.143:509-516. [This the first reference to Pyrogenic Exotoxin C. (PEC, aka SEF & TSST-1)]
 
        14. Schlievert, P.M. & J.A. Kelly. Staphylococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin C: Further Characterization.
              (1982) Ann. Intern. Med. 96(6 pt. 2):982-986
 
 
 
 
TOXIN TECHNOLOGY, INC.
7165 Curtiss Ave. Sarasota, FL 34231-8012
Ph. (941) 925-2032 Fax (941) 925-2130 e-M toxtech@att.net
 
 
Staphylococcal Enterotoxins as Superantigens:
 
             1.  Taranta, A. Lymphocyte Mitogens of  Staphylococcal Origin. (1974) Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.
                   236:362-375.
             
             2.  White, J. et al. The Vß-Specific Superantigen Enterotoxin B: Stimulation of Mature T Cells and
                  Clonal  Deletion in Neonatal Mice. (1989) Cell. 56:27-35. [Note: This is the 1st paper to use the term
                                                                                        Superantigen!]
            
             3.  Marrack, P. & J. Kappler. The Staphylococcal Enterotoxins and Their Relatives. (1990)
                   Science. 248705-711.
 
             4.  Johnson H. et al. Superantigens in Human Disease. (1992) Scientific American. April: 92-101.
             
             5.  Hudson, K.R. et al. Two Adjacent Residues in Staphylococcal Enterotoxins A and E
                  Determine T Cell Receptor Vß Specificity. (1993) J. Exp. Med. 177:175-184.
 
             6.  Kotb, M. Bacterial Pyrogenic Exotoxins as Superantigens. (1995) Clin. Microbiol. Rev.
                  8:411-426.
 
             7.  Proft,T. & J. Fraser. Superantigens: Just Like Peptides Only Different. (1998) J. Clin. Immunol.
                  Bernal, A. et al. 19:149-157.
             
             8.  Al-Daccak, R. et al. Staphylococcal Enterotoxin D Is a Promiscuous Superantigen Offering   
                   Multiple Modes of Interactions with the MHC Class II Receptors. (1998) J. Immunology.
                   160: 225-232.
 
             9.  Jarraud, S. et al. egc, A Highly Prevalent of Enterotoxin Gene, Forms a Putative  Nursery of
                  Superantigens in Staphylococcus aureus. (2001) J. Immunology. 166: 669-677.
 
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Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxins as  Superantigens
 
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             2.  Li, P-L. et al. The Superantigen Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin C (SPE-C) Exhibits a Novel
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             3.  McCormick, J.K. et al. Functional Characterization of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin J,